The ud (in uzbek) or oud is a pear-shaped stringed instrument with 11 or 12 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Persian,Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Uzbek, Jewish, Byzantine, Azerbaijani, Armenian, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somaliand Middle Eastern music.
Construction of the oud is similar to that of the lute. The modern oud and the European lute both descend from a common ancestor via diverging paths. One instrument that has been suggested as ancestral is the barbat. The oud is readily distinguished from the lute by its lack of frets and smaller neck. Alongside the lute, it is considered an ancestor of the guitar. The oldest surviving oud is thought to be in Brussels, at the Museum of Musical Instruments