Prophet Muhammad was an Arab religious, social and political leader and founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a divine prophet. Inspired to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. It is considered the seal of the prophets in Islam. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim state, and the Koran, as well as its teachings and customs, formed the basis of the Islamic religious faith.
Muhammad was born around 570 AD in Mecca. He was the son of Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and Amina bint Wahb. His father, Abdullah, son of the leader of the Quraysh tribe, Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim, died a few months before the birth of Muhammad. His mother Amina died when he was six, leaving Muhammad an orphan. He grew up under the care of his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib and paternal uncle Abu Talib.
In the following years, he periodically retired to a mountain cave called Hira for several nights of prayer. When he was 40 years old, around 610 CE, Muhammad reported that Gabriel visited him in a cave and received his first revelation from God. In 613 Muhammad began publicly preaching these revelations, declaring that "God is one", that complete "submission" (Islam) to God is the right way of life (din) and that he was a prophet and messenger God like other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were initially few in number, and for 13 years they experienced hostility from the Meccan polytheists. To avoid continued persecution, he sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. This event, Hijri, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes in accordance with the Constitution of Medina.
In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with the Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went virtually unopposed, and Muhammad captured the city with little bloodshed.
In 632, a few months after returning from his farewell pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. The revelations (each of which is known as Ayah - literally "The Sign of God" that Muhammad reportedly received before his death are verses from the Qur'an that Muslims consider to be the literal "Word of God" on which the religion is based. Apart from the Qur'an, the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) contained in the hadith and sira (biography) are also supported and used as sources of Islamic law.
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