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Sizdah Bedar Holiday in Iran

National Holiday Sizdah Bedar, Iran

Sizdah Bedar, also known as Nature Day, is an Iranian festival held annually on the thirteenth day of Farvardin (the same as Aries), the first month of the Iranian calendar, during which people spend time outdoors picnicking. It marks the end of Nowruz holiday in Iran.

In general, among Iranian festivals, "Sizdah Bedar" is somewhat vague in terms of historical roots. History textbooks prior to the Qajar era do not explicitly mention such a holiday. But in ancient sources, such as the Shahnameh, there is a mention of the "thirteenth day of Farvardin". It is widely believed that the ancient Iranians celebrated the 13th day of Novruz after twelve days of celebration, each day representing a month of the year. This was the official end of Nowruz and the beginning of the remaining twelve months of the year.

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In ancient times, each day of the month had its own name. For example, the first day of each month was called "Ormazd Rooz" and the thirteenth day of each month was called "Tir Rooz" and belonged to "Izad Tir" (the god of Tir). The word "Rooz" in Persian means "day". The word "Tir" in the Avestan language is called "Tishtariah". This is the same as the name of Tishter, the god of rain. Thus, it can be said that Tir was a symbol of divine goodness among the ancient Iranians, because rain is symbolically equal to divine goodness and generosity in Persian culture.

Nature Day is an ancient Persian tradition to celebrate the victory of the rain god over the drought-causing demon. This day was customary to celebrate even before the emergence of Zoroastrianism Asho (1800 BC). Before Asho Zoroaster, people believed that in order for the rain god to defeat the drought demon, they must worship this god on that particular day and ask for rain. In ancient Iran, after celebrating the 13th day of Nowruz, which was the beginning of the agricultural semester, Iranians would go to their fields and farms or plains, deserts, and riverbanks to worship. They rejoiced, danced and joyfully asked for rain.

Iran National and Public Holidays