Eid al-Fitr - "Holiday of Breaking the Fast", is more the earliest of two official holidays celebrated in Islam (the second is Eid al-Adha). Although the Qur'an does not mention the celebration of Eid al-Fitr, the religious holiday of Eid al-Fitr is celebrated by Muslims around the world because it marks the end of the month-long fast of Ramadan from dawn to dusk. Eid al-Fitr falls on the first day of Shawwal in the Islamic calendar; this does not always fall on the same day in the Gregorian calendar, as the beginning of any Hijri lunar month varies depending on when local religious authorities see the new moon.
The holiday is known by various other names in different languages and countries around the world. This day is also called Little Eid al-Adha or simply Eid al-Adha. Eid al-Fitr has a special prayer (Islamic prayer) which consists of two rakats (parts) usually performed in an open field or large hall.
This can only be performed in a congregation (jama'at) and includes seven additional takbirs (bringing the hands to the ears while saying "Allahu Akbar", meaning "God is the Greatest") in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam: three at the beginning of the first rakat and three immediately before the hand in the second rakat.
Other Sunni schools usually have 12 takbirs, also divided into groups of seven and five.
In Shiite Islam, there are six takbirs in the first rakat at the end of the qira'a, before the ruku', and five in the second. Depending on the legal opinion of the area, this prayer can be either fard (obligatory), mustahabb (highly recommended), or mandub (preferred). After prayer, Muslims celebrate Eid al-Fitr in a variety of ways, with food ("Eid cuisines") being the central theme, which has also given the holiday the nickname "Sweet Eid al-Fitr" or "Sugar Feast".
According to Muslim tradition Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Medina after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas, a well-known companion of the Islamic prophet, narrated that, when Muhammad arrived in Medina, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they entertained themselves with recreation and merriment. At this, Muhammad remarked that God had fixed two days of festivity: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
Iran National and Public Holidays