The Constitution of Uzbekistan was adopted on 8 December 1992 on the 11th session of the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan. It replaced the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan of 1978. It is the supreme law of the Republic of Uzbekistan This holiday is celebrated across all Uzbekistan.
The first Constitution of the Uzbek SSR was adopted on March 30/31, 1927 at the 2nd All-Uzbek Congress of Soviets, published on July 11, 1927, and was in force for 10 years.
The Constitution of the Uzbek SSR, adopted on February 14, 1937, has been in effect for over 40 years. On April 19, 1978, the last Constitution of the Uzbek SSR was adopted, drawn up on the model of the 1977 USSR Constitution.
The need to develop a new Constitution was announced at the II session of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR, which took place on June 20, 1990, and at which the "Declaration of Sovereignty" was adopted. The session adopted a resolution on the creation of a commission for the preparation of the draft Constitution of 64 people, headed by the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov. The commission included deputies of the Supreme Council, representatives of Karakalpakstan and regions, scientists and specialists.
The Constitutional Commission has been working on the development of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan for almost 2.5 years. At the meeting of the Constitutional Commission, which took place on April 12, 1991, a working group of 32 people was created - leading specialists and scientists. To prepare the sections of the Constitution, 6 small groups of 50 people were created. The proclamation of the state independence of Uzbekistan on August 31, 1991 and the adoption of the Law "On the Foundations of the State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan", giving this law a constitutional status, further strengthened the responsibility of the Constitutional Commission.
When developing the draft Constitution, the world practice of constitutional development was studied, the successes achieved in the world in the field of human rights, democracy and legislation were taken into account. On September 26, 1992, the draft Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was published in the press for nationwide discussion. The discussion lasted about two months. The draft, with corrections made on the basis of suggestions made during the discussion, was published in the press on November 26, 1992. During the nationwide discussion, more than 6 thousand proposals were submitted, which were accepted by the commission for consideration.
The XI session of the Supreme Council, which took place in December 1992, discussed the issue of adopting the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The first edition of the Constitution was published on December 15, 1992 in issue 247 (438) of the Narodnoye Slovo newspaper. The current Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was republished in several editions, the current one is dated April 7, 2017.
The Constitution consists of a Preamble, 6 sections, 26 chapters, divided into 128 articles.
Basic principles. This section consists of 4 chapters (from 1 to 4 chapters), 17 articles (from 1 to 17 articles). This section reflects State Sovereignty, Democracy, the Rule of the Constitution and the Law, and Foreign Policy.
Basic rights, freedoms and duties of a person and a citizen. This section consists of 7 chapters (from 5 to 11 chapters), 34 articles (from 18 to 52 articles). This section reflects General Provisions, Citizenship, Personal rights and freedoms, Political rights, Economic and social rights, Guarantees of human rights and freedoms, and Responsibilities of citizens.
Society and personality. This section consists of 4 chapters (from 12 to 15 chapters), 15 articles (from 53 to 67 articles). This section reflects the Economic Foundations of Society, Public Associations, Family and Mass Media.
Administrative-territorial and state structure. This section consists of 2 chapters (from 16 to 17 chapters), 8 articles (from 68 to 75 articles). This section reflects the administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan.
Organization of state power. This section consists of 9 chapters (from 18 to 26 chapters), 51 articles (from 76 to 126 articles), which are devoted to the activities of the highest representative body of the Republic of Uzbekistan - the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the activities of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Cabinet of Ministers, Fundamentals of state power on places (concept, powers, organization of activities), the Judicial Power of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Electoral System, the Prosecutor's Office, Finance and Credit, Defense and Security.
The procedure for changing the Constitution. This final section consists of 2 articles (from 127 to 128 articles). This section describes the procedure for introducing changes and amendments to the Constitution.
The Constitution establishes a single citizenship for all territories, which is equal for all citizens. Article 21: "A citizen of the Republic of Karakalpakstan is at the same time a citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan." The main difference of this Constitution is the priority of the interests of the citizen over the interests of the state.
The constitution can be changed by a two-thirds majority of the members of both houses of parliament or by referendum (art. 127); rejected amendments may be resubmitted after a year (Art. 128). The amendments were made in 2009, as well as in 2016 and 2017.